A Concise History of the Middle East (8th ed.Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants. Retrieved 15 August 2011.The political algebra of global value change. Vogelweide Financial Regulation in Crisis?
Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out.During this time, Muhammad, while in Mecca, preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Retrieved 10 August 2011.Retrieved 23 October 2015. Über Gott, den Urknall und den Anfang des Lebens Caliphate System Some seven years later, Muhammad and his many followers returned to Mecca and conquered the region.